Deutero Isaiah ( Chapters 40-55 Book of Isaiah )
At the death of Nebuchadrezzar in 562 B.C.E. there was a secession of weak kings... Last was Nabonidus 556-539 B.C.E..
He worshiped the moon god, Sin, favoring Sin over Marduk. Spent last eight years away from home leaving his son Beltshazzar to govern.
He had supported the prince of Anshan (Persia) Cyrus. Cyrus may have been a Zoroastrian.
(Comment on Zoroastrianism... Ahura Mazda, Angra Mainyu, Chivat Bridge, Heaven, Hell, Angels, Ahura, Shaoshyant, MAGI
550 Cyrus conquers the Medes (*Zoroastrianism)
539 B.C.E. Babylonia Army crushed by Persians at Opis on the Tigris, and in October Babylon falls. Cyrus attributes the fall to Marduk.
Why? Geographical belief, protection, In opposition to Sin for popular appeal.
150 years after Jerusalem falls Isaiah 2nd lives in Babylon.
Different historical background, language, literary style, and theology.
“Tense and terse rhetoric gives way to flowing and lyric poetry/
Terms... Comfort, in the wilderness, servant, chosen, salvation figures.
Disciples of First Isaiah who believed a remnant would survive. He comforted his people.
Suffering Servant Passage.
Four Sections -. 42:1-4, 49:1-6, 50:4-9, 52:23 - 53:12.
52:7 How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him who brings good tidings who publishes peace, who brings good tidings of good, who publishes salvation.
53: He was despised and rejected by men, a man of sorrows acquainted with grief... Surely he has born our grief and carried our sorrows, He was wounded for our transgressions,, the Lord has laid on him the inequity of us all (scape goat.) Fraser, The Golden Bough/
Later idea of substitionary atonement.
53: 13. He bore the sins of many and made intercession for the transgressors.
55: 6. Seek ye the Lord while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near, etc. Read.
55:12 Read. ... end with the beginning of 56
The Nation Israel
Deutero Isaiah Chapter 40 -55 book of Isaiah.
Rowley... “ it seems probable that no view will ever command agreement, The primary issue turns on whether the servant is interpreted as (1) an individual, (2) a collective personification of the nation or its faithful remnant, or (3) in some sense, both.
Ss. Pages 401, 402, 403,
Comfort ye, comfort ye, my people says your God, Speak tenderly to Jerusalem, and cry to her that her warfare is ended, that her inequity is pardoned, that she has received from the Lord’s hand double for all her sins. A voice cries In the wilderness prepare the way for the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway...etc.”
40:6 All flesh is grass.
40:17 All the nations are as nothing before him,
40:22 It is he who sits above the circle of the earth,
Accomplishments of God, 41:14 Fear not, you worm Jacob.. ((Not image building, You don’t build up my self esteem.)
43: Remember not the former things, nor consider the things of old, Behold I am doing a new thing.
43: 25. I am he who blots out your transgressions for my own sake.
44:16 Against Idols.44: 28 Cyrus is my shepherd., anointed 45:
Assorted passages...see Bible.