Religious Studies 211

Haggai, Zechariah, Deutero Zechariah, Malachi, Trito-Isaiah, Obadiah, Joel

HAGGAI


James King West



Three prophets in particular spoke to the immediate, practical necessity of restoring the cult: Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The first two are credited by the Chronicler ((Ezra 5:1; 6:14) with a role in rebuilding the temple and their oracles show them as having been the moving spirits behind Zerubbabel.”


A small book of four or five oracles


1:1-15a (Aug-Sept.., 520 bce) The summons to rebuild the temple


2: 1:15b-2:9 (Sept -Oct. 520 bce. The future splendor of the temple


3.: 2:10-19 (Nov. - Dec. 520 bce Holiness and uncleanness.)


4. 2:20-23 (Nov. - Dec. 520 bce) God’s Word to Zerubbabel)





((The pre-exile prophets declared that the forms of religion without the substance were meaningless, since it was the substance that gave meaning to the forms. While the post-exile prophets rather urged that where there was the substance of religion it must express itself in the forms. H.H. Rowley quoted page 419.))


Scripture


1:4 “Is it a time for you yourselves to dwell in your paneled houses, while this house lies in ruins? Now therefore thus says the Lord of hosts: Consider how you have fared. You have own much, and harvested little; you eat , but you never have enough; you drink, but you never have your fill; you cloth yourselves, but no one is warm; and he who earns wages earns wages to put into a bag with holes.”




2:8 The gold is mine, the silver is mine, says the Lord of hosts. The later splendor of this house shall be greater than the former, says the Lord of hosts.”




Possible messiah.. 2:23..On that day...I will take you, O Zerubbabel my servant the son of Sheaktiel, says the Lord, and make you like a signet ring, for I have chosen you says the Lord of hosts.



FIRST ZECHARIAH



Zechariah LIKE Ezekiel A PRIEST AND A PROPHET.


THE FIRST EIGHT CHAPTERS OF THE BOOK ARE Zechariah


Apocalyptic visions.


He does not deliver oracles in Yahweh’s name as report the revelations vouchsafed to him through angelic meditation.


He appeals to the witness of past prophecy.


He did not succumb to narrow nationalism.


He envisioned the oppressors defeat, and then “ Many nations shall join themselves to the Lord in that Day, and shall be my people, and I will dwell in the midst of you. 2:11


Zechariah’s portrayal of Joshua raises Joshua the priest to a level with Zerubbabel.


Yahweh is Joshua defender.


Anticipates the Qumran community with its royal and priestly messiahs. (2 Messiahs in Qumran)



Scripture.


1:8 “I saw in the night, and behold a man riding upon a red horse! He was standing among the myrtle trees in the glen; and behind him were red, sorrel, and white horses. And I said what are these Lord?


Four horns = the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel and Jerusalem.


Man with measuring line 2:1


he who touches you touches the apple of his eye. 2:4




2:11 And Many nations shall join them selves to the Lord in that day, and shall be my people; and I will dwell in the midst of you. And you shall know that the Lord of hosts has sent me to you. And the Lord will inherit Judah as his portion in the holy land, and will again chooses Judah.”


3: 3 Joshua standing before the angel. 3:3


These are the two anointed ...Joshua and Zerubbabel. 4:14


Visions


Remnant


8:5 The streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the street.


8:8 I will bring them to dwell in the midst of Jerusalem; and they shall be my people and I will be their god, in faithfulness and in righteousness.”


8:23 In those days; ten men from the nations of every tongue shall take hold of the robe of a Jew saying, “ Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.”

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DEUTERO ZECHARIAH


9:1 - 14:21

Why is there Deutero-Zechariah?


1. The Persian background of the earlier chapter is not evident.


2. Peaceful conditions have given way to international upheaval.


3. Greece is mentioned by name 9:13


4. Zerubbabel and Joshua are not mentioned.


5. Different theological and literary style.


6. More apocalyptic, and narrowly nationalistic (“ sometimes unjustifiably offensive”)



9:6 A mongrel people shall dwell in Ashdod.


9:9 “Lo your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on an ass, on a colt the foal of an ass.


(Meaning of riding on an ass. Coming peacefully. Etc.


9:15 “they shall devour and tread down their slingers, and they shall drink their blood like wine and be like a bowl drenched like the corner of an altar...grain shall make the young men flourish and new wine the women.


11:17 Woe to my worthless shepherd, who desert the flock! May the sword smite his arm and his right eye.”


13:7b “Strike the shepherd, that the sheep may be scattered.”


14:6 On that day there shall be neither hot or cold nor frost...etc.


14:12 b. “Their flesh shall rot while still on their feet, their eyes shall rot in their sockets, and their tongues shall rot in their mouths.




MALACHI


This book concludes the collection of the minor prophets.


The temple is standing. Dialogues between God or the prophet on one hand and the people and priests on the other hand. ( Remember HABAKKUK. Dialogue between God and Habakkuk on the problem of evil.


Issue is theodicy?


Rabbinic style. Ech question provokes a question.


Rationalism and logical and reasoned argument.


Mood depression and apathy.


The protest against God for suffering less sophisticated than the protests of Jeremiah and Habakkuk.


= lack of respect for the temple.


See messenger coming, probably an angel, 4:4-5 Editor attaches the name Elijah.



1:4...the people with whom the Lord is angry forever.


Fault of people


1:8. Offer a blind animal for sacrifice.

1:14 Curses be the cheat who has a male in his flock and vows it, and yet sacrifices to the Lord what is blemished.


3:3 He is like a refiner’s fire..


3:6. For I the Lord do not change; therefore you, O sons of Jacob are not consumed. ...Will man rob God? Yet you are robbing me. But you say, “How are we robbing you?” In your tithes and offerings., You are cursed with a curse. For you are robbing me. The whole nation of you. Bring the full tithe into the storehouse, that there may be food in my house, and, thereby, put me to the test...see if I will not open the windows of heaven and pour down upon you an over flowing blessing.


4:1 For behold days are coming, burning like an oven...burn up the evildoers as stubble... Wicked will be ashes under my feet.



4:5 Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes.”


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TRITO-ISAIAH


ISAIAH 56 - 66


What do Trito-Isaiah, Obadiah, Joel and Jonah have in common ?


1) an origin in post-Exilic Jewish community +


2) An obscure background that makes dating impossible

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Duhm... Proposes the doctrine of “Third Isaiah” at the end of the last century.


1. No anticipation of Cyrus. Rather the realities in post exile Judah.


2. Absence of the suffering servant.


3 Call for vengeance against Edom.


4. More apocalyptic



Scripture


56:7 ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer for all people.”


57:16 For I will not contend forever, nor will I always be angry.


63: 36


65:18


66:1


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OBADIAH


Obadiah is 21 verses.


A venting of spleen against the Edomites.


Edom did not assist Judah against Babylon.


1:10 For the violence done to your brother Jacob, shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off forever. On the day you stood aloof, on the day that strangers carried off his wealth and foreigners enter his gate and cast lots for Jerusalem you were like one of them... you should d have not....


Your deed shall return upon your head.



JOEL


Text Book


Locust plague followed by a drought, followed by Yahweh’s intervention and the promise of Israel’s restoration and Yahweh’s judgement on the nations.


1:4 “WHAT THE CUTTING LOCUS LEFT THE SWARMING LOCUS HAS EATING...HOPPING LOCUS,, DESTROYING,, AWAKE YOU DRUNKARDS. ETC.


2:1 CLOUD OF LOCUS.


2:12 YET EVEN NOW RETURN TO ME WITH ALL YOUR HEART, RETURN TO THE LORD YOUR GOD, FOR HE IS GRACIOUS AND MERCIFUL, SLOW TO ANGER, AND ABOUNDING IN STEADFAST LOVE AND REPENTEST OF EVIL.”



I WILL REMOVE THE NORTHERNER FAR FROM YOU AND DRIVE HIM INTO THE PARCHED AND DESOLATE LAND. ( FAVORITE SCRIPTURE OF THE CONFEDERACY ) THE STENCH AND FOUL SMELL OF HIM WILL RISE FOR HE HAS DONE GREAT THINGS.


2:28B YOUR SONS AND YOUR DAUGHTERS SHALL PROPHESY AND YOUR OLD MEN SHALL DREAM DREAMS AND YOUR YOUNG MEN SHALL SEE VISIONS.


2:30 THE SUN SHALL BE TURNED TO DARKNESS AND THE MOON TO BLOOD, BEFORE THE GREAT AND TERRIBLE DAY OF THE GOD COMES.


3: HAVE GIVEN A BOY FOR A HARLOT AND SOLD A GIRL FOR WINE AND HAVE DRUNK IT.




3:10 BEAT YOUR PLOUGHSHARES INTO SWORDS AND YOUR PRUNING HOOKS INTO SPEARS, LET THE WEAK SAY “I AM A WARRIOR.” COMPARE TO ISAIAH 2:4, AND MICAH 4:3


3:20 But Judah shall be inhabited for ever and Jerusalem to all generations, I will avenge their blood, I will not clear the guilty, for the Lord dwells in Zion.”