Why did Judaism survive when other ancient Near-eastern religions did not survive?
It worshiped the true God.
The Deuteronomic cycle provided a religion that was able to handle defeat. The Jews when defeated, repented and blamed themselves for their (sin) disobedience to God. Other nations blamed their God and changed to a perceived more powerful God.
It demanded that the children be taught the religion. Other religions, such as Zoroastrianism, which did survive but did not prosper, restricted religious knowledge to aa restricted educated class. (Note: The story of the mother eagle and the three eaglets.)
Judaism was more than a religion. Because of the laws and customs which permeated all areas of life if was a totally life style, a complete culture.
Deuteronomic Pattern in the Book of Judges
Apostasy -> Oppression -> Penitence - > Deliverance - .