JUST WAR THEORY


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PLATO (SOCRATES)


Socrates and Plato


A. Socrates 469-399 B.C.E.


B. Plato - 428/7 - 348/7 B.C.E.



General Statements


A just man should not harm anyone. A just man should not make others unjust. Act so as to make today’s enemies tomorrow’s friends.


Rules for the Just War


I. The war must be fought for a just purpose. Defense is a just purpose.


This does not compel a nation to wait to be attacked.


II. The war must be fought in a just manner.


A. Do not kill non-combatants

This includes farmers and ordinary citizens. Women are not automatically classified as non-combatants. Plato gave women an opportunity to serve in the military forces. He actually worried that they would not be willing to abide by the rules of conduct after the war was over. They might be too vicious.


B. Do not use cruel and unusual means of warfare.

He may have been referring to devices that hurled fire long distances, i.e. catapults.


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Augustine



Rules for the Just War


I. The war must be fought for a just purpose.


To prevent heresy may have been added.


II. The war must be fought in a just manner.


A. Do not kill non-combatants


This includes, women children, farmers, priests, damaging churches and church land, etc.


B. Use only appropriate instruments of war. Do not use cruel and unusual methods.


III. The war must be approved by a legitimate government.

An approved government must be approved by the church in order to be legitimate..

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Thomas Aquinas.


Rules for the Just War


I. The war must be fought for a just reason.


II. The war must be fought in a just manner.


List of non-combatants extended to all those working in any way for the church and not in the military. Statements made that lead to “Truce of God,” and “Peace of God.”


III. The war must be approved by a legitimate government.


IV. The doctrine of proportionality must be applied.


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NEW ADDITIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS



I. There must be a reasonable probability of success.


II. All other avenues of negotiations (approach) must be exhausted.

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Peace of God


Truce of God