Lecture - Kings & Prophets

Rels. 211

I. Attitude toward kings.

A. Samuel’s ministry

1st Sam 7:15-17 - Samuel is a magistrate who travels a circuit in the hill country around Ephraim.

B. Three stories of the selection of Saul with two themes.

1. 1st Sam 8:10 ff Ways of a King. People demand a king. ANTI-KING

2. 1st Sam 9:15-10:5 - Samuel takes initiative in selecting Saul - PRO-KING

1. (First story resumes) 1st Sam 10:17-27 Samuel yields to the demands of the people after warning that the selection of a king is tantamount to rejecting Yahweh. ANTI-KING

3. 1st Sam 11:1-15 Saul’s displays charismatic leadership in delivering Jabesh-Gilead from the Ammonites and is made a king by popular acclaim. - PRO - KING


II. There are parallel accounts of

Samuel’s rejection of Saul 1st Sam 13:8-5 & 15

Samuel selects David 1st Sam 16:1-13 Least likely son of Jessie, from the least likely tribe, the Benjamanites

David’s introduction to Saul 1st Sam 16:14-23, David the musician and armor-bearer

David and Goliath ... Saul prepares David for battle with Goliath 1st Sam 17: 31- 40

& 1st Sam 17:55-58 David kills Goliath, and Saul hears of him for the first time from Abner.

David’s flight from Saul 1st 19:11-18 & 20

David’s sparing of Saul’s life in the wilderness 24 & 26

Efforts to reduce the older source in Samuel to 2

Promonarchial (Democrats -- pro government)

Antimonarchy (Republicans -- Antimonarchy)

not J, E, P, D


III. Samuel is both charismatic judge, magistrate, priest and prophet.

IV. The united Monarchy (c. 1020-922 B.C.) , pp. 229

Saul’s failures

A. 13:9-15 sacrificing before battle (job of priest)

B. 15 Failure to practice herem.

C. (Patronage of a sorceress) ??

8:10-18 Read ways of a king.

  1. Saul (1020-1000 BC)

Like a judge

Benjamite.. Warrior leader

Has no harem, no court...Has a general Abner, a cousin.. Rustic fortress..

Checked Philistine controlled highlands.

Defeated the Amaleks from the Negev failed to institute herem.

(Samuel kills Aga 15:33)

Saul’s later years fits of depression, etc.

Kills 85 priests at Nob.

Philistines mount a counterattack, On the eve of the fatal battle in the Valley of Jezreel, Saul consults a medium to contact the dead Samuel..Medium of Endor.. Philistines storm Gilboa defeat Saul’s army , slay Saul and Jonathan...

11Sam 1:19-27 David’s tribute to Saul and Jonathan (Was David a homosexual?) Or a bisexual?


DAVID 1000-961 B.C.

1st Samuel (last half Saul and David overlapping)

VI. Three introductions of David

A. 16:1-13. Samuel goes to Bethlehem where from eight sons the small less ruddy shepherd is chosen Samuel anoints him

B. 16:14-23 David introduced into Saul’s court as a musician.. Becomes an armor bearer

C. 17:1 - 18:5 David kills Goliath King ask Abner who he is. Took head of Goliath to Jerusalem. Problem... David later conquered Jerusalem.

VII David’s actions and successes

1. Military

2. Saul turns on David in jealousy. Saved by Jonathan.

3. David flees to Philistia, wins. confidence of King of Gath, Philistine, receives village as gift, Ziklag.. Raids Amalekite villages in Southern Palestine and the Negev. Make Philistines think his battles are against the Israelites.

4. Judah acts on own and makes David king.

5. King of Judah for two years, rules from Hebron

6 Saul’s son, Ishbaal rules over the north..

  1. 11 Samuel 1-4.

Laments over the death of Saul and Jonathan

Feud develops between Abner and David’s nephew and general Joab.

Joab murders Abner.

David mourns for Abner

Ishbaal assassinated by two of his captains. David sentences them to death.

Northern tribes make David King



2nd SAM 5:17-25

I. DEFEATS Philistines

1. Selects Jerusalem as capital, and conquers it. Through the water tunnel.

  1. Makes Jerusalem religious center by installing the ark.

  1. . Egyptian cabinet.

  1. Joab..Military Chief... Secretary of War.

  1. Benaiah -- Chief of Foreign mercenaries.

  1. Chief Priests.. Zadok & Abiathar ,, Secretaries of the Interior

  1. Jehoshaphat Public Relations & Secretary of State. & overseer of forced labor.. Public Works - Secretary of labor

II. International success and family failure

(Politicians and their families)

II Sam 9-20 = Court History, 1 Kings 1-2

1. Writer = the father of history.

2. Founder of the historical novel


III. Story of Bathsheba and David... and the prophet, Nathan

Uriah the Hittite.

Major Discussion ... The king is not above the law.

II Samuel 11-12... Nathan, “You are the man.”


Death of Bathsheba’s child

Amnon’s rape of Tamar, his half sister.

Absalom’s murder of Amnon

Absalom’s rebellion against David.

Absalom’s death at he hands of Joab.

Rivalry between Adonijah and Solomon..


Second minor prophet. Nathan

Former prophets...








Prophets, Davie Napier, “that understanding of history which accepts meaning only in terms of divine concern, divine purpose, divine participation. Broad definition.

Historically restricted to Samuel onward

Nature of prophecy,

nabi’ “one who calls or proclaims,” One who speaks as the messenger of God.

Less a predictor of the future as one who announces a hypothetical proposition, or who denounces a past s action.

Nathan, Gad and Miciah were court prophets.

Know what they did?


961-922 B.C.

Opposed his elder brother Adonijah backed by Joab and Abiathar

He was supported by Nathan, Zadok and Benaiah + David

Adionijah wanted Abishag and was therefore executed

Joab killed by Benaiah on David’s orders.

Abiathar banished to home city


marriages harem 700 wives and 300 concubines, including daughter of Pharaoh... Treaty with Tyre (Phoenicia),, Expanded mining & trade..

Built temple.

12 administrative districts

Each under a governor

Levies given one month a year.

Taxation and forced labor, Became in debt because of expenditures on public projects..

Weaknesses to senility and foreign wives... revolts, etc.

Lost of individual rights and tribal rights.. Political priests.


Lead to the dual monarchies. 922-722 B.C.

I will be telling stories about the kings in the future.. Turn to page 560, 561 and 562. for names of kings and relationship with prophets. Know which kings are good. And the major stories of why each king is bad..



1 Kings 17-19,21 & II Kings 1-2

Contest with the Baal prophets on Mount Carmel... Read. 1 Kings 18:20-46

Theophany at Horeb (Still small voice) 1st Kings 19:1-18

Story of Naboth’s vineyard. 1st Kings 21:20-24 Read

Departure in a whirlwind.



Note similarities and differences.

Naaman’s healing Ch 5.

2nd Kings 2: 19-22 Destructions of 42 boys for calling him “old bald head.”