Christianity In Its Contemporary Culture

Rudolph Bultmann

+ own additions





One life to live


Sacred Scriptures

Tithe Offering > tithe or offering

Sacrifice... Animals > Jesus

Error > Sin



 Passover > Easter

Sacred Day of Worship

Rabbis > Paid Ministers

Priests > Priests

Heaven (Through Zoroastrianism)

Hell (Through Zoroastrianism)

Devil (Through Zoroastrianism)

Covenant (From Judaism to Christianity through adoption)

Messiah - Suffering

Messiah - Conquering

Messiah - End Time

Old Testament prophecies > fulfilled In Jesus

Free Will

God who acts in History

Ethical Emphasis in laws, 10 Commandments, Love your neighbor, Take care of widows and orphans., Save the children.

Washing ceremonies > baptism

Passover observance > Communion, Lord’s Supper, Eucharist

Resurrection of the body > resurrection of the body

Importance of the physical , especially blood > importance of body as temple of God, also Communion

Spirit > Spirit

Equality of all before the law > Equality of all before God (All men are created equal )

Rights come from God (with certain inalienable rights)

Circumcision <> Opposition to the requirement for circumcision

Importance of showing empathy and emotions > Jesus wept, “I feel your pain.”

Jewish virtues > faith, hope, love, humility

Major role for women.





One life to live

Monotheism (?)

World a battleground between forces of good and forces of evil > book of revelation



Shaoshyant > Messiah

Ahura Mazda & Angra Mainyu > God & Devil

Guardian Angels


Final Judgment Day

Concept of the Crusade

Halos of saints

Magi that appear at birth of Jesus

Zoroastrian virtues > Kindness, Protection of the weaker, Brave, Truthful,







Dying and rising God

Drinking the blood and eating the body of the raw bull (later barbequed) allows you to participate in the death and resurrection > communion, Lord’s Supper, Eucharist

Equality of participants > Equality before God

Major role for women





Jesus is a being in the great chain of beings <> Opposition

Father / Mother God <> Opposition

Secret Knowledge <> Opposition

Plenum of being > fullness of being, fullness of time, etc.

Jewish God is inferior God <> opposition (more or less)

Higher role of women



Roman Law


Expanded concept of citizenship > Citizenship of all Christians

Rule over entire world > Missionary zeal

Importance of the physical > Importance of the physical

Concept of punishment for crimes > Substitutionary atonement

Concept of adoption > Evangelism

Concept of the Emperor > Concept of the Pope

Limited role of women.

Roman codes of behavior > Paul’s codes of behavior




Roman Stoicism


Universal laws > universal ethics, and laws of nature

Order > Predestination

Importance of controlling emotions > Courage in the face of persecution. Christian stoicism




Greek Philosophy


Doctrine of Substance and attributes > Transubstantiation

Aristotle’s God > Unchanging God , Transcendent God

Soul > Immortality of the Soul

Inferiority of the body > Aesthetic , Anti-sexuality

Greek/Roman virtues , Wisdom, Temperance, Courage, Justice




Greek Culture


Limited democracy > Limited democracy in the church

Importance of the body

Greek language