Philosophy 304

Indian and Oriental Religions


Brief Chronological Outline of

Hindu Literature, Persons, and Religious Development

3200-2500 B.C.



2000-1000 B.C.?

Concurrent Vedic Period, Punjab The worship of the

Historical Coming of Aryans personified forces of

Events and Mantra (hymn’ Period nature by hymns, prayer,

Persons and sacrifice.

Major gods are Indra

1000-600 B.C. (power’ Varuna (the sky,

The Rig-Veda (psalms) order), Agni (fire, sacrifice)

The Sama-Veda (chants) etc.

The Yajur-Veda (Sacrificial

hymns) The great collections

The Atharva-Veda (“Homely” of hymns and charms



Hosea The Brahmanas

Elaboration of ritual

The Mahabharata Saga and manuals for priest

Brihadaranyak Upanishad and sacrificer.

Taittiriya Upanishad Great importance placed

on correctness of detail


Images introduced into


Chandogya Upanishad The discovery of basic

Katha Upanishad Hindu philosophic truth,

The Ramayana discussion, and teaching

(Books II-VI) in hermitages called

Jeremiah Svetasvatara Upanishad Ashramas. The record of

such teaching is the content

Early Sutra literature of the Upanishads.


History The Mahabharata (major

500 B.C. portion)

The Development of Shaivism

Buddhism and Vaishnavism

a state The Bhaqavad-Gita completed. The systematized custom

Religion Social system established in all human relations--

300 B.C. according to fixed laws. family, caste, household,

political rules. The basic

Later The Ramayana (books of Hindu law.

Buddihist I and VII.)


Syrian 100 B.C. --- 500 A.D. The six darsanas

Christian the Sankhya. philosophy (accepted systems of

Church in The Code of Manu philosophy differentiated

Labar The Yoga Sutra and systematized.)

The Puranas (old stories

and legends)


Period in The Vishnu Purana The development of

Buddhist and popular literature

Jain Literature 5001000 A.D. based on characters

The Mahabharata in the Mahabharata

completed and the Ramayana.

Muhammad Shaivite Tamil Devotional Elaboration and expansion

Parsis Saints of legend.

Enter India Appar

Sambandhar Popularization of religious

Sundaramurthi ideals through

Manikka — Vasagar Puranas

The 1000-1700 A.D. Temples. Organization

Crusades Bhakti Saints of worship.

Ramanuja 12th century (eminent

Conquest Philosophers of the Sectarian Hinduism

of northern Bhakti Movement — (Vaishnava and Sai

India Vaishnava) vite) in popular

by Jnanesvara Forms of Bhakti. Devotion

Muslim (Marathi — Vaishnava) to a personal

Invaders Ramananda god in differing

(Hindi Vaishnava) Forms. Rival Bhakti

Kabir (Hindi Sought to Schools in all sections

The Mogul unite Hindu Bhakti and of India.

Empire Muslim Sufism.)

Devotional poetry,

Chaitanya (1486-1533) son, and dance --

(Bengali — Vaishnava) Movements centering

Namdev around the

(Marathi — Vaishnava) Bhaktas.

Early Roman Sur Das Saiva Siddhanta, the

Catholic (Hindi — Vaishnave) Philosophy of Saivism.

Missions Tulsi Das

(Hindi — Vaishnava)

Overseas Tukaram

expansion of (Marathi — Vaishnava)

Europe Daduday

(Marathi — Vaishnava)

Madhva (Bhakti philosopher)

British 1700-1900A.D.

Conquest Hinduism stagnating.

of Maharatta, Rigidity in society.

Mogul, and Sikh Defensiveness.



of Protestant

Missions in


Ziegenbalg Hindu self-criticism






Carey, 1793 Movements of Reform and


The Brahmo Samaj

British Ram Mohan Roy

Sovereignty Keshub Chandra Sen

The Tagores

The Arya Samaj

Dayananda Sarasvati

The Theosophical Society

Hindu Renaissance

Sri Ramakrishna


Swami Vivekananda

1900-1950 A.D.

Later Hindu Renaissance

and Nationalis

Independence Mahatma Gandhi

and partition Sri Ramana Maharshi

1947 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Assassination Aurobindo Ghose

of Gandhi Vinoba Bhave


The Hindu Mahasabha