Indian and Oriental Religions
Brief Chronological Outline of
Hindu Literature, Persons, and Religious Development
Concurrent Vedic Period, Punjab The worship of the
Historical Coming of Aryans personified forces of
Events and Mantra (hymn’ Period nature by hymns, prayer,
Persons and sacrifice.
Major gods are Indra
1000-600 B.C. (power’ Varuna (the sky,
The Rig-Veda (psalms) order), Agni (fire, sacrifice)
The Sama-Veda (chants) etc.
The Yajur-Veda (Sacrificial
hymns) The great collections
The Atharva-Veda (“Homely” of hymns and charms
Hosea The Brahmanas
Elaboration of ritual
The Mahabharata Saga and manuals for priest
Brihadaranyak Upanishad and sacrificer.
Taittiriya Upanishad Great importance placed
on correctness of detail
Images introduced into
Chandogya Upanishad The discovery of basic
Katha Upanishad Hindu philosophic truth,
The Ramayana discussion, and teaching
(Books II-VI) in hermitages called
Jeremiah Svetasvatara Upanishad Ashramas. The record of
such teaching is the content
Early Sutra literature of the Upanishads.
History The Mahabharata (major
500 B.C. portion)
The Development of Shaivism
Buddhism and Vaishnavism
a state The Bhaqavad-Gita completed. The systematized custom
Religion Social system established in all human relations--
300 B.C. according to fixed laws. family, caste, household,
political rules. The basic
Later The Ramayana (books of Hindu law.
Buddihist I and VII.)
Syrian 100 B.C. --- 500 A.D. The six darsanas
Christian the Sankhya. philosophy (accepted systems of
Church in The Code of Manu philosophy differentiated
Labar The Yoga Sutra and systematized.)
The Puranas (old stories
Period in The Vishnu Purana The development of
Buddhist and popular literature
Jain Literature 500 — 1000 A.D. based on characters
The Mahabharata in the Mahabharata
completed and the Ramayana.
Muhammad Shaivite Tamil Devotional Elaboration and expansion
Parsis Saints of legend.
Enter India Appar
Sambandhar Popularization of religious
Sundaramurthi ideals through
Manikka — Vasagar Puranas
The 1000-1700 A.D. Temples. Organization
Crusades Bhakti Saints of worship.
Ramanuja 12th century (eminent
Conquest Philosophers of the Sectarian Hinduism
of northern Bhakti Movement — (Vaishnava and Sai
India Vaishnava) vite) in popular
by Jnanesvara Forms of Bhakti. Devotion
Muslim (Marathi — Vaishnava) to a personal
Invaders Ramananda god in differing
(Hindi Vaishnava) Forms. Rival Bhakti
Kabir (Hindi Sought to Schools in all sections
The Mogul unite Hindu Bhakti and of India.
Empire Muslim Sufism.)
Chaitanya (1486-1533) son, and dance --
(Bengali — Vaishnava) Movements centering
Namdev around the
(Marathi — Vaishnava) Bhaktas.
Early Roman Sur Das Saiva Siddhanta, the
Catholic (Hindi — Vaishnave) Philosophy of Saivism.
Missions Tulsi Das
(Hindi — Vaishnava)
expansion of (Marathi — Vaishnava)
(Marathi — Vaishnava)
Madhva (Bhakti philosopher)
Conquest Hinduism stagnating.
of Maharatta, Rigidity in society.
Mogul, and Sikh Defensiveness.
Ziegenbalg Hindu self-criticism
Carey, 1793 Movements of Reform and
The Brahmo Samaj
British Ram Mohan Roy
Sovereignty Keshub Chandra Sen
The Arya Samaj
The Theosophical Society
Later Hindu Renaissance
Independence Mahatma Gandhi
and partition Sri Ramana Maharshi
1947 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Assassination Aurobindo Ghose
of Gandhi Vinoba Bhave
The Hindu Mahasabha