The Five K’s of the Khalsa (Brotherhood of the Pure)
Kesh - Hair which is not cut
Kach - Trousers (pantaloon)
Kirpan - Dagger
Kartha - Iron (Steel - Silver - Aluminum)
Kanga - Comb
(God or Sat Nam or Hari)
(The Adi Granth)
Nanak - 1469 - 1538 or 1539 “Founder” “There is no Hindu . There is no Muslim.”
Angad - 1540 - 1552 - Chosen by Nanak - Leader of Hindu Durga Sect - He enlarged the Gurdwaras . Opened it to all races, castes, sex. Created an alphabet for Sikhs.
Amar Das - 1552 - 1574 - Chosen by Angad - Devoted to social and religious reforms. Condemned Sati (suttee) Wrote poetry critical of Hindu scriptures, polytheism, idolatry, and Brahmins. He praised virtue and piety.
Ram Das - 1574 - 1581 - Son in law of Amar Das, the third guru - Established large public kitchen or gurdwaras on the site later to be the Golden Temple in Amritsar.
Arjun - 1581 - 1606 - Son of Ram Das, the fourth guru - Compiled Adi Granth - Made Amritsar the home of the Sikhs - Wrote hymns and sacred scripture - Expanded the public kitchen - Imposed the tithe to support the kitchen and his office and the temple. . Supported Khusraw in a plot to overthrow his grandfather, the Mughal emperor and replace his father Salim Jahangir. The plot failed. He became the first Sikh martyr. . Instruct his son to add to the scripture , “Maintain an army...”
Har Gobind - 1606 - 1645 - Son of Arjun, the fifth guru - Became guru at age 10. Became head of a military order.
Har Rai - 1645 - 1661 - Grandson of Har Gobind, the sixth guru. - Fought losing war against the Mughals, His son became a hostage to the Muslims.
Har Kishan - 1661-1664 - Grandson of Har Rai, the seventh guru. No major accomplishments. He kept the group together.
Teg Bahadur - 1664-1675 - Son of Har Gobind the sixth guru. Moved headquarters to Anandpur to avoid Mughals. He was caught and executed by Mughals. Sikh claim for his religion. Secular scholars argued for political reasons. Becomes a major martyr.
Gobind Rai - 1675-1708 -Took the name of GOBIND SINGH (THE LION) , son of Teg Bahadur the ninth guru, Organized the Khalsa, United the Sikh “church” and the state, Developed initiation by a combined baptism and communion with sugar water, stirred with a sword and drank and sprinkled over communicants, . Appointed a committee to form policies, Adopted the five K’s for members, Admitted people of all four castes included women, outlaws, and outcastes. Attacked the Mughals, After small victories, defeated by overwhelming forces, driven into the desert and mountain, developed guerilla tactics, , Revised Adi Granth, composed new additional scripture, , died in 1708 leaving instructions for committee to carry on rather than a new guru..
New Ranjit Singh (1780 - 1839) Raja of a political state, under British protectorate.